Obesity and physical inactivity are widely accepted as major health hazards. Older women in the United States have been counted as one of the most obese and sedentary segments of the population. Unfortunately, the combination of being post-menopausal, obese, and sedentary has been cited as being a high predictor of developing cardiovascular disease. Many women recognize this in their own lives and take steps to reduce their dietary intake and be more physically active by joining behavioural weight loss programs (BWLP – see note below). However, many of these women find it hard to stick to their programs, especially over time. Researchers decided to study whether a person’s mood could affect their chances of sticking to their exercise program. (This is called ‘compliance’ in research terms.)
The researchers studied 25 obese, sedentary, post-menopausal women over the course of an eight-week behavioural weight loss program (see Sidebar). The participants completed a graded exercise test (GXT) before beginning the program. They also completed a questionnaire to assess their mood before and after taking the initial exercise test. Exercise can evoke strong negative or positive feelings, and the researchers knew that many sedentary and obese people had reported feelings of embarrassment, fear, or apprehension related to exercising. Assuming that a person’s mood immediately before exercising would reflect their general attitude toward exercising, the researchers wanted to know if this attitude would affect participants’ adherence to the exercise component of the BWLP.
The first pattern to emerge from this study was that those who reported a positive mood before the initial exercise test tended to engage in more planned exercise during the weight loss program. Mood made no difference in the amount of non-exercise daily physical activity that occurred. In other words, people had to be in the mood to exercise in order to follow a program, whereas domestic and vocational tasks were performed out of necessity and duty.
The second pattern to emerge was that the relationship between mood and the amount of exercise performed grew stronger over the course of the BWLP. Women who reported greater vigor before and after the test and less post-exercise confusion spent more time in planned exercise during the middle and final stages of the BWLP. In contrast, those women who reported greater fatigue and confusion after the test spent less time exercising in the final weeks of the BWLP. One explanation for this finding is that at the beginning of the BWLP, all of the participants were excited about the new program and pushed themselves to exercise regularly, regardless of their moods. However, over time, as the novelty of the program wore off, many found it difficult to stick to the exercise program. Only those who showed an elevated mood at the initial test (and therefore presumably had better feelings about exercise) were able to stick to it.
The researchers concluded that although exercise is seen as one of the most important factors in successful weight maintenance after weight loss, many women who enter formal weight-loss or physical activity programs may have poor treatment outcomes. Women with negative feelings about exercise might exercise less than women who are in a positive frame of mind. Recognizing the role of mood to exercise compliance might reveal motivational and cognitive clues that could be used to identify and promote physical activity in reluctant adults more effectively. Some people may benefit from programs that help them overcome their negative feelings or ambivalence towards exercise. Motivational techniques geared to decreasing emotional obstacles and resolving ambivalence to exercise may go a long way to improving the effectiveness of BWLP, which appear to have reached a plateau in the last decade.
What the study did not address was how to motivate people who are reluctant or ambivalent towards exercise to get active. What can you do if you hate exercising?
The first thing I tell new clients is that it takes time to build that motivation. The motivation is usually external at first. This is why so many people like to join a class or hire a personal trainer–so that they feel obligated to show up to a class, a small group, or a session with their trainer. A good personal trainer or fitness instructor will help you get motivated and more importantly stay motivated. A good instructor or trainer will ensure that you are exercising safely and effectively. By making a class or a session challenging and fun, you will learn to associate exercise with good feelings instead of bad. Over time and with practice, motivation becomes more internally driven. Remember that it takes time to form habits–good or bad ones. Exercise is no different. As you become more regular with attending classes, meeting with your trainer, or exercising on your own, a habit will form and be reinforced every time you do it. It’s important to be regular with your exercise schedule–by choosing which days and times are most suitable–and sticking with it. If your schedule has to change because of work or domestic responsibilities, don’t give up. Make a new exercise schedule and stick with that one for as long as you can. Most of all, learn to roll with the punches. Don’t throw in the towel because of unforeseen circumstances. Get back in the ring!
To your health,
Behavioural Weight-Loss Program
Behavioural Weight-Loss Program (BWLP) is a program that tries to help people lose weight by attacking the problem on many fronts. Over a six-month period, participants attend 16 to 24 sessions with nurtitionists, behavioural therapists, and exercise physiologists. They learn not only how to eat better and exercise safely, but also how to change the environment around their home to make it easier for them to exercise and eat better. For example, they learn to remove high-fat foods from their environment; how to organize their space to remind them to exercise (and make it easy to do so), how to deal with social situations that require eating, how to modify their own recipes, and even how to get back to the program after a relapse. Participants are even taught problem-solving and assertiveness techniques, to help them get past unexpected problems that may arise.
Carels, R. A., Berger, B., Darby, L. (2006) The association between mood states and physical activity in post-menopausal, obese, and sedentary women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 14(1), 12-28.